Mushroom picking is a pleasant, but at the same time very responsible process. A simple inattention can lead to poisoning or even death. The reason for all this is poisonous mushrooms. And although most people from childhood are accustomed to represent in this case the red fly agaric, unfortunately, there are much more varieties of them. That is why it is important to get acquainted with information on how to identify edible and safe types of mushrooms before going to the forest.
Types of Poisonous Mushrooms
Poisonous mushrooms contain hazardous substances in their composition, which, getting into the human body, begin to provoke the process of intoxication. Moreover, the concentration of these substances can be so strong that even after heat treatment of the fungus or its drying, they can affect human health no less destructively.
The main classification is characterized by the degree of influence of fungi on a living organism. In this case, they are divided into 3 types:
- Provoking food intoxication;
- Affecting the central nervous system;
- The most poisonous mushrooms lead to severe poisoning and death.
The third species is not only the most dangerous, but also very insidious. The toxins that enter the human stomach do not manifest themselves at first. And only with time does the process of defeating vital organs and systems begin. This often becomes the reason that people do not have time to save. And he dies, as a rule, in great torment.Poisonous mushrooms provoke food intoxication of the body
In addition, dangerous mushrooms can be divided according to the poisons they contain:
- Cyclopeptides. These are some of the most poisonous mushrooms. The first signs appear after 1-2 days in the form of a disorder of stool, vomiting and seizures. After a couple of days, a lull may appear, which is replaced by a sharp deterioration. Without timely medical assistance, the patient may die from liver dysfunction against the background of developing jaundice;
- Monomethylhydrazine. Symptoms appear quickly, within 3-6 hours. Usually these are dizziness, headaches, pain in the abdomen. The process of poisoning is completed, similar to the first type;
- Orellanin, cortinarin. Pain in the stomach, vomiting and thirst appear only after 5-14 days. Death occurs due to kidney failure;
- Koprin. This is not a fatal appearance and the symptoms of poisoning occur only when drinking alcohol for a short period of time. Usually this is redness of the integument, tachycardia, vomiting and diarrhea;
- Muscarin. Cause a fever 2-4 hours after ingestion. The temperature is not observed;
- Ibotenic acid, muscimol. Also, they do not carry mortal danger, and the signs are reduced to sensations similar to alcohol intoxication;
- Bufotenin. They are slightly poisonous. Unpleasant sensations appear only when they are consumed in large quantities.
There are also types of mushrooms that cause allergic reactions and hallucinations.
How to distinguish poisonous mushrooms
Perhaps many people, rummaging in their memory, will be able to recall the names of poisonous mushrooms. But how they look, only a few can say. But it is precisely this knowledge that will help not to make a mistake when walking in the forest, so it is important to familiarize yourself with what the most poisonous mushrooms look like.
For this reason, it is important when going for a crop with children, to explain to them that you can’t immediately try mushrooms, even if they at first glance do not cause concern. Moreover, ordinary mushrooms can become hazardous to health. This happens when they are already overripe, and a process similar to fermentation begins to occur in them. The hats of such mushrooms are usually curved outward.Double mushroom false fox
List of double mushrooms:
- Porcini. It is characterized by a very thick leg, a brown hat and white flesh inside. Twins of the porcini mushroom can be called gall and satanic species. These are tubular poisonous mushrooms. They can be distinguished by the darker color of the leg and the color of the inner pulp: in the first species, it turns pink when cut, and in the second it becomes lilac;
- Again Their light plates never darken, and a ring can be found on the foam. Their poisonous brethren are sulfur yellow and brick red honey agarics. The difference between the species are the brighter colors of the plates;
- Butterflies. A brown hat and a plump leg are familiar to many. A dangerous double is a transverse fungus. And although in form these two species are very similar, they are distinguished by their color. In the second case, the cap is reddish with a burgundy tint;
- Chanterelle. Known for its unusual convex shape of the hat is light yellow in color. The inedible false chanterelle has a darker reddish-orange hue. It is also distinguished by the fact that when a hat is broken, a white juice begins to stand out in a poisonous species;
- Champignon. The most eaten dry mushroom. Familiar with all its light color and slightly pink plates. A champignon's hat often makes it look like a very dangerous mushroom - a white grebe. Fortunately, it can be distinguished by the presence of a ring on the stem and by plates that never change color and always remain white.
There are no general rules for distinguishing edible and poisonous mushrooms. Therefore, the best option would be to collect only those safe species that are one hundred percent familiar. In the presence of even minor doubts, it is not worth collecting a mushroom, and even more so to eat it.
Deadly Poisonous Mushrooms
In most cases, really dangerous toxic fungi provoke the death of a person, by the influence of toxins on the functioning of the kidneys or liver. A smaller part of them affects the central nervous system and respiratory apparatus.
The most famous representative in this group is the poisonous mushroom Amanita. And although most people associate this name with a red hat and white dots, the fly agaric is a group of more than 600 subspecies. The most dangerous of them are:
- Classic red. It is characterized by a thick leg, a bright red cap and white spots, which can sometimes be absent;
- White. Leg is hollow, beige hat of a cylinder or flattened shape with brown scales;
- Smelly. It features a light gray tint and a sharp small rounded hat. It’s sticky to the touch. Prefers to grow in coniferous forests.
The cobweb is another common representative of inedible fungi. It also has several dozen species, 2 of which are deadly:
- Plush. The surface has a velvety structure. The hat is brown, rare orange plates. Sometimes it has a smell;
- Purple. A distinctive feature is the lower part of the lid is bright red, and the flesh inside is pink. The hat itself is brown, silky to the touch.
The Patuillard fiberglass is a poisonous cap mushroom widespread in the coniferous and deciduous forests of Russia. It is characterized by a red smooth hat, very frequent plates and lack of smell. The content of life-threatening substances is 20 times greater than in the fly agaric.
Another species that you need to pay attention to is the lepiota, popularly known as silverfish. Got this name due to the uneven surface of the lid. The so-called flakes, as a rule, have a brown tint. The light leg also often has an uneven surface. Most often the liver is affected.
The most poisonous mushroom in the world
Two types can compete for the title of the most poisonous mushroom in the world:
- The well-known poisonous mushroom is a pale toadstool. It accounts for a huge share of deaths. All parts of the plant have a light, almost white color. The average height is 15 cm. The Volvo is baggy, and the plates are quite wide. It can be distinguished from edible mushrooms, such as champignons, by the presence of a characteristic ring at the bottom of the leg, as well as by the color of the plates. Unlike other mushrooms, they always retain a white color in her;
- Unusual and rather rare mushroom Bloody tooth. Confuse it with other species will not work, so its appearance is unusual. Its surface is white velvet and covered with a kind of red droplets. It is unlikely that a person will meet who dares to try it, not even knowing about its toxicity.
It is worth remembering that the precautions in collecting mushrooms will never be superfluous. And if there are unpleasant sensations in the body after taking them, it is better to immediately seek medical help.