In the presence of sudden bleeding caused by trauma, it is important to stop the blood as soon as possible. For this, hemostatic preparations (hemostatics) are used, which, when in contact with the bleeding site, form a pseudo clot that blocks blood flow. Such drugs are very useful in providing first aid and at home, but have some features of use.
What are hemostasis?
Hemostops are a group of drugs that, when in contact with blood, form a blood clot, clogging the site of rupture of a vessel. They are used in the provision of emergency first aid in the presence of heavy bleeding.
According to statistics, in the presence of injuries more than 50% of patients die precisely from bleeding, without waiting for medical help. The application of tourniquets and tight dressings does not allow to achieve the desired result, as is possible when using hemostops.
The advantages of hemostatic drugs are:
- Complete sterility, which, when properly applied, does not cause wound infection.
- It is not absorbed into the blood and does not accumulate in the body.
- Easy to use, can save lives in critical situations.
- Suitable for all types of wounds and bleeding.
- The ability to use in places where the application of a tourniquet is unacceptable.
Among the shortcomings, one should highlight the lack of effectiveness in case of extensive bleeding.
Initially, these drugs were made to stop bleeding in those places where the application of a tourniquet is impossible: neck, axillary cavities, head. Hemostops were effectively used by the military, where in case of injury there is no possibility of constant medical assistance. This helped save thousands of lives, after which the drug was introduced into everyday life.
Mechanism of action
The hemostatic effect is based on the hemostatic's unique ability to absorb moisture. In direct contact with the blood secreted, water is captured, and the blood itself becomes more concentrated, which allows you to start the natural mechanism of hemostasis (blood coagulation) as soon as possible. This contributes to the rapid formation of a blood clot, which clogs the site of damage to the vessel and the bleeding stops.
Calcium and other components, which are coagulation factors and accelerate the coagulation process, are included in hemostops. The drugs have no contraindications, as they contain natural components. With their help, not only superficial bleeding from wounds can be stopped, but also deep bleeding that develops during abdominal operations.
Types of hemostasis
Depending on what kind of bleeding needs to be stopped and how extensive the damage is, hemostopaths are divided into groups.
A haemostop in the form of dressing is represented by a small segment of a sterile bandage or cloth soaked in hemostatic. Each such bandage is packed with an individual sealed package, after opening which the bandage is not subject to reuse.Hemostatic bandages
Apply hemostatic bandages in surgery to plug deep vessels, access to which is limited. Also, napkins with a hemostatic effect can be used in everyday life to stop bleeding. Hard hemostops are well suited for incised, softened and lacerated wounds accompanied by arterial or venous bleeding.
To stop bleeding, it is necessary to clean the wound from blood clots and rinse with warm water, then attach a napkin and firmly press it with your hand to the site of bleeding for 2-3 minutes. During this time, a pseudo clot will form, which eliminates bleeding.
In the case when after using one package of the bandage the bleeding did not stop, the next one is opened and applied to the wound. Tight bandage and the application of a roller from a sterile bandage are shown, which will enhance compression. For secondary use, the drug is not suitable.
This type of hemostasis is presented in the form of a tube with a thin tip. Inside it contains a special liquid substance that triggers the blood coagulation mechanism. The applicator allows you to stop deep bleeding, where you can not get it with a napkin, bandage and powder.
The only drawback of the applicator is the fact that if it is used incorrectly, it can provoke increased bleeding due to additional injuries to a bleeding vessel.
Applicators are suitable for stopping bleeding with penetrating wounds, deep knife wounds, gunshot wounds. The contents of the tube are injected under pressure into the bleeding cavity, and then tightly pressed by hand with a sterile bandage. In the absence of effect after 4-5 minutes, a second portion of the drug can be used.
Powdered hemostasis is the most common and effective. The principle of their action is to maximize the absorption of water from the total volume of blood secreted, which thickens it and contributes to the formation of a blood clot.Powdered Hemostop
Upon contact with water, a thermoreaction occurs, as a result of which heat is released. To minimize thermal burn after applying the powder to the wound, it is recommended to squeeze the wound with a sterile bandage.
The powder is packaged in an individual sealed package, designed for a one-time intake. If the bleeding has not stopped after the first application, after 5-7 minutes you can use a new package.
The aerosol form is used only for external injuries, wounds and abrasions. The spray allows you to apply a liquid agent to the skin, which after 5-10 seconds block bleeding. The number of applications depends entirely on the degree of damage to the vessel and the individual characteristics of the body.
How to apply
The package with the drug is opened immediately before use. Before opening, make sure the integrity and tightness of the package. In the presence of the slightest damage, the hemostop cannot be used, since its effectiveness will decrease significantly.
Powder form is used with extreme caution, avoiding contact with mucous membranes and wet skin. This can cause a burn, so you should remove the powder as quickly as possible from the surface of the skin and rinse with plenty of cool water.
Regardless of the form of hemostatic, there is a single dosage regimen:
- To clear a wound of blood clots, dust and extraneous microparticles by washing with cool water.
- Apply a hemostop and firmly press a sterile bandage to the site of bleeding, which will help to avoid the development of a burn.
- If the bleeding did not stop after 3-5 minutes, then the manipulation is repeated, having previously removed the remains of the previous substance.
- In the absence of effect, a tourniquet is applied.
The part of the body where bleeding is noted should be fixed in a fixed position, which will help reduce bleeding. When applying a tourniquet, a note with the time and date is mandatory.
The drug is stored in a cool, dry place. For the powder form, it is important that the bag is airtight. Otherwise, the powder will harden until it needs to be used.
Hemostop analogues are foreign drugs Celox and Hemcom. It is extremely difficult to find them in domestic pharmacies. If possible, you need to buy any kind of hemostatic for a first-aid kit, which will make it possible to protect life in case of bleeding.